All posts by Mr. Everett

Most of the time I like to teach history, play chess, hike, read, and think freely and creatively. I am continually inspired by jazz, deep thoughts, and cool people. Oh, and I want to change the world.

December 7th 1951

This is a previous blog post I originally published on September 11, 2011. In light of the Pearl Harbor anniversary, I thought I would republish it today.

While I am sitting here typing and reflecting on the events on September 11th 2001 from a decade’s hindsight, my thoughts wandered to the 10 year anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7th 1951.  So I asked…

Almost immediately, I received a response. Someone suggested using Google News Archive to look for information from newspapers on that date. I had no idea Google had been scanning newspapers, but it made sense to me, considering all of the other scanning they are doing. I went to the site and found a whole paper from the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette from December 7th 1951. You can view the paper by clicking below. [Note: Use the toolbar at the top to zoom out or request a full page view.] This is an image of page 38 of 42. The story was not a focus of the media. If you go to the link and read the left and right columns, you will find some odd human interest stories, but not central news. From a cultural perspective, notice also the number of advertisements and their focus (heavily influencing women to buy).

Within this page, there are three small columns concerning the Pearl Harbor attack that brought the US to declare war on Japan and formally enter World War 2. Notice the titles.(You can click on the images for a larger viewing, in order to read the text.)

The article that makes me think the most as a historian is this one. “Gone is the sublime and wonderful confidence that American boys plus American arms plus American production, can make short work of any and all enemies.” “Today they know that a killer-nation is not likely to observe the amenities and conform to etiquette.” Is the journalist referring to the nuclear age that cast a shadow over the world, especially in the midst of the Korean War (as December 7th 1951 was), or do they recall the surprise attack on the “day that will live in infamy”?

The article below also reflects a new reality concerning war: dissent and public opinion. I found it fascinating that a rally was held in which President Roosevelt was denounced as “Chief American warmonger” at an America First rally. What would have been the reaction to rallies against the invasion of Iraq that occurred in January and February of 2003 if the 9/11 attacks had happened in their midst? As the editors stated, “Nothing could have united the American people so immediately and completely.”

While my TV shows every network focusing on the memorial events of the World Trade Center, as well as at the Pentagon and in Pennsylvania, I wonder if some consider the “penalties of leadership” written above to reflect our future, not just that of 1951. Did we ever have that “sublime and wonderful confidence”? Will we? Should we? These are questions I hope to introduce in my US History classes this week.

Bridging Wor(l)ds

When I was a teenager, I would write prolifically on my computer. Sometimes I would try to model my favorite poetry depending on whether I was reading Emerson or Blake. Often, I would write very short stories then seemed like scenes from someone looking out the window of a fast moving car to a busy sidewalk. Other times, I would reflect on my own life and try to place events in some kind of order, hopefully leading to meaning, and possibly purpose. My computer was my muse, and when I felt bold, I would go to my dot matrix printer and set myself to ‘publishing’ my thoughts for an illusory audience of some critics and many admirers. What I collected over this years eventually filled many binders and reams of paper, but its collective worth was only valued by my own imagined currency.

Now, I find myself living in the world, not trying to create one. I have found a path to walk. Through teaching, I satisfy my desire to learn and my need to contribute to a better world. Much of my time is spent thinking about small actions within big plans, about helping students find their way into a forest of questions, and then back out again. Small successes and looming challenges become part of each day, and its good enough.

Today, for some reason, I felt I needed to build some kind of bridge between the past and the present. I’ve wanted to write reflectively for some time, while finding many convenient reason (excuses?) for not doing so. Would the world suffer if I wrote a bad poem? Probably not, but one can never be too sure. Every reflection is growth. Every dream is as real as each breath.

Sunday Morning Scan


Browsing Twitter on Sunday mornings is a pleasure. Although the week’s Tweets are always useful, I enjoy taking the time to scan, check out websites, collect primary sources, catalogue different classroom strategies, read teacher’s blogs, and comment back to a great pool of educators, on Sunday morning. Here are a few ‘finds’ from recent tweets as well as old resources. Let me know if you find them useful!
  • EdCafes: I saw this demonstrated at last year’s EdcampBoston and thought it had potential for a history class. The creator is Katrina Kennett (Plymouth South) and the basic idea is that students become facilitaor/presenters on topics of their choice related to a theme covered in class. In their words, “An EdCafe is a way to structure class that promotes student choice and ownership over learning. The model was inspired by EdCamp conferences, where participants build the schedule and choose what sessions to attend. This bottom-up approach shifts energy, engagement, and opportunity for exploration to the students, and transforms the teacher into expert facilitator instead of gatekeeper/manager.” Usually, there are four presentations going on in one class, and presentations are scheduled up to a month ahead. There’s a heavy amount of preparation for each student presenter and responsibilities for the participants as well. Katrina teaches this model with an ELA class, but it can be applied to history easily enough. Her site offers an explanation of what an Edcafe is, ideas for scaffolding skills, standards and assessments, advice for students, and examples of Edcafes in action.
  • American History Madness: I’ve actually done this project on paper for a couple of years and many of you have probably heard of it. I originally got the idea from this article on applying the NCAA Final Four brackets to a history class. Other teachers have built many variations on this idea. Mine was usually a poster-board with groups of students defending different outcomes. The teacher sponsoring this American History Madness blog has incorporated Google Forms and student presentations and blogs into his version. Its much more interactive, and allows/encourages the public to vote as well. With the iPads in many classes, its easy for us to facilitate and publish student presentations online. Students are also expected to be able to debate their positions. 
  • PPT Palooza: If you’re like me, and have created 100’s of PPTs over the years, this site makes me sigh, but in a good way. Susan Pojer has created hundreds of PPTs for US and World History that are absolutely amazing. She’s also linked some from other teachers and students. Check them out. I use them all the time now, and they also make for great backgrounds to screencasts, which are teacher-made YouTube video lectures. Using sites like Screencastomatic and others, its really easy to record yourself on audio while walking your students through a PPT or website on your computer. If you have any questions about how to make these, I can show you. It’s really easy and allows you to give lectures for students to do at home, so you can focus more time in class on inquiry, debates, projects, and basically homework (applied learning). The new buzzword is ‘flipped class’, but it has its merits, especially when students have their own iPads and mobile devices. 
  • Zinn Education Project: Even though Howard Zinn’s speeches and politics were controversial, his application of critical thinking in studying history was not. I’ve used the People’s History of the US (annotated teachers edition) as well as Voices of a People’s History in my APUSH classes for years, asking students to support or oppose his non-neutral stance on US History with evidence. I didn’t really care which position students took, as long as they learned the tools of historiography in the process. This website has a huge amount of teaching material that is free. All of the lessons involve different levels of critical thinking and student engagement (many have role plays), which I have always found useful. The Facebook page for the Zinn Education Project has a new primary source document highlighted almost every day as well. There’s also a free downloadable full teacher guide to Voices of a People’s History available on their site as well. so is a useful feature. There are also videos of actors reading primary sources from Voices of a People’s History that you can play in class. 

The Convention Wordles

Being a history teacher, I just can’t stay away from the conventions. I love the drama, or even the lack thereof, on the convention floors. Most nights I would sit up and watch. Some nights I had headphones in listening the the live stream. But in the end, I wondered what had changed and what it all meant. So, I decided to put some of the major speeches into Wordle and see if I could discern the tea leaves. Here’s what I got:

Round 1: Political Wives

Ann Romney’s Speech

Michelle Obama’s Speech

Round 2: Keynote Addresses

Chris Christie’s Speech

Julian Castro’s Speech

Round 3: Nominee Speech

Mitt Romney’s Speech

President Obama’s Speech

What do you think? Patterns?

The 2012 Election in Your Classroom


The election is coming! The election is coming! 2012 is ‘one of those years’ in the classroom and it is a great opportunity for History and Social Studies teachers to focus on the choices that Americans make to determine their next president. For us, as teachers, there are a lot of bases to cover as we hope to inform our students about the process by which a person becomes a candidate, the social issues that divide and unite the country, the nature of political parties and campaign financing, the current state of the economy amid high unemployment, and the war in Afghanistan and our foreign policy in very important regions of the world like China, the Middle East, Africa and more. It’s a big plate.

I’d like to offer some suggestions and resources that might help facilitate discussion, depth and debate before November 6th rolls around. Many of these suggestions come from the great work done by other educators and found on Twitter. We all stand on the backs of giants.

  • From the National Constitution Center, adomatic.us gives students the power to create their own candidacy for the presidency by creating their own campaign ad. It’s an easy step-by-step process. Thanks to the great post by Gillian Nyla.
  • Facilitate a discussion with your students on the nature of the political parties and the issues that divide them into ‘left and right’ positions using this infographic. Infographics allow students to visualize complex issues. You can even have students create their own using sites like visual.ly, easel.ly, and infogr.am. For a great resource on 2012 election infographics, check out this intense Pinterest board on the subject. Have students fact-check and analyze as propaganda.
  • Watch with students, ‘The Choice’ by PBS Frontline with your students. It will air on October 9th and will provide a documentary on the biographies of the two candidates as well as an in-depth look at the issues that divide them and their leadership styles and personalities. Also check out their documentaries on the 2008,2004 and 2000 elections.
  • Explore the complex issues of campaign financing with your students using the transparency of OpenSecrets.org. Following the 1996 elections, the Center for Responsive Politics created the website to ‘follow the money’ in national and local elections. Role play with students campaign fundraising activities, re-enact the Citizens United Supreme Court case, or run an in-class election as if it was a presidential one to see how the money influences (or not) the vote.
  • Any US History teacher knows how complicated it is to explain the dreaded Electoral College. This under 5 minute video helps explain it all, including all of the oddities and complexities of the process. It’s great. You could show this to your students all the way through and ask them “Who got this?”, then go back and pause it along the way for deeper explanation.  Open a discussion about why this process exists. If its around Constitution Day, even better! If students still have questions, send them to the US Government FAQ page for the process.
  • FIguring out where the candidates stand on the issues is sometimes a lot harder than it looks. Sometimes there are subtle policy differences and other times its really hard to determine where the candidates are just based on general statements made in speeches. ProCon.org has a great webpage that takes the issues and parses them by the candidates own statements, along with analysis, by topic. It’s a great place for students to go to find out sometimes how similar and different the choices between candidates is. Have students create their own stump speeches, role play and debate each other, have a newsmaker interview with campaign staff, etc. and watch the subtleties fly! This website is also a good place to learn and discuss foreign policy, which hasn’t really been a front-page issue in 2012.
  • Here’s some great resources for students to see and build their own electoral maps from the New York Times, PBS Newshour, CNN and FOX. Have your students figure out how polls determine these stats. Help them conduct their own school and town/city polls. Finally, here’s another good one that students can use to build a map to 270 electoral votes, called 270 to Win.
  • The New York Times also has some great infographics from the conventions. This one explains visually how many times certain words were used in the convention speeches. Students can look at these and begin a discussion on who the audience is for each speech and what the candidate’s intent is. You could also use the website Wordle to cut and paste famous speeches in history into a text box. What happens next is that you get a visual ‘word cloud’ on the most commonly used words in bigger and bolder print. Here’s a link to convention speeches I put into Wordle.
  • Campaign commercials also say a lot about a candidate and their campaign’s message. We all remember the little girl counting while picking a flower, and then getting blown up by a nuclear weapon. This site, the Living Room Candidate, has hundreds of campaign commercials going back to Eisenhower. They make for excellent primary source analysis as well as a focus on propaganda in election politics. Here’s also a great site which provides a sample of 200 years of election posters.
  • There are many surveys and questionnaires you can give your students to gauge their positions on different issues. Here’s a brief list: Campaign Match Up,
  • Finally, here’s a list of some great sites with other teaching lessons and ideas for Election 2012:

I hope these resources help. Please feel free to leave feedback, and have a great time exploring these issues with your students on the road to November!

First Meeting

August 28th was the first professional development day for Sandwich Public Schools for the 2012-2013 school year. As a new teacher in the district, I quickly saw a tone set by the administration. After the pledge,  national anthem, and speeches, each of the four principals in the district took turns honoring their employee of the year. Heartfelt stories of true passion for teaching, compassion for others, and dedication to work, were told by each principal while standing ovations were given by colleagues to honor outstanding educators. It was a wonderful experience to begin the year, and said to me something great about a district where teachers are heroes.

We then went to our department meetings. In the history department, we focused our discussion around five central questions:

  • What are key historical concepts students must know?

  •  What historical thinking skills must students be able to demonstrate?

  • What teaching strategies reinforce these concepts and skills?

  •  How do we effectively assess these concepts and skills?

  • What resources do we have/need to be more successful?

The discussion that followed focused on many topics, such as making differentiation more authentic, setting clear expectations for historical thinking skills vertically from grades 9-12, making the integration of technology more collaborative, reinforcing basic geography skills, and more. The caliber of experience in the room, along with a clear desire to strengthen and support the teaching of History and Social Studies, was obvious. It’s going to be a great year.

 

The Poetry Foundation

One of the best apps I have had the pleasure of enjoying this summer is from the Poetry Foundation. Their poetry app allows you to search and browse select poems from around the world and through the ages. All you have to do is select themes and topics on two sliders and spin them to get randomly generated topics, like nature and passion, or compassion and relationships. It’s a quick way to remember that language is an art still curiously understood.

How Twitter Helps Me Grow

Yes, I love Twitter. In 2006, I thought it would be cool to sign up for an account and share with the world my actions and thoughts…

One post.

Yes, that’s all I entered. I don’t really think I understood it at all. Why wasn’t anything showing up in my Twitter stream? Who do I ‘follow’? I had no idea. Then I decided to return to it in April 2011. I remembered a local teacher who I had heard talk about cell phone use in his class, found his webpage/blog, loved it, and then saw that he was on Twitter.

He was my first ‘follow’.

One thing led to another. More teachers began showing up. I followed them as well. Then I saw principals, superintendents, consultants, professors and (gasp) even students on Twitter. I learned really quickly how valuable it could be. I was invited to a local #edcamp (unconference) in Boston and then met hundreds of educators, all sharing resources, providing feedback, and collaborating together on different projects. It was like some kind of PD heaven!

So, on to tonight. I saw that there was an AP US History chat being moderated at 7PM EST and, yes, its summer. I had the time and really wanted to connect with APUSH teachers. We introduced ourselves and the discussion began: “How do we help our students in the beginning of the year without overwhelming them?”

Some ideas shared on Twitter #APUSHchat:

  • Get PSAT data from students and compare with a diagnostic US History test, then make groups 3-4 strong with middle and developing students in each group.
  • Ask students what they want to get out of the class and then pretest them to see what they know and where they are at.
  • Give students an organized day by day agenda so that they know what to expect and set deadlines.
  • Create a pacing/reading guide for students for the whole year so they can plan their schedules.
  • Identify class and personal goals, as well as reading and learning goals.
  • Sharing the ‘top 10’ pieces of advice given by last year’s APUSH class.
  • Using formative assessments on a regular basis to inform instruction. Here are some notes shared by one teacher: http://bit.ly/NfkBxq
  • Letting students know about (and practice) different note taking strategies, such as Cornell notes, The One Pager, Havard Outline, Dialectical Journals, Levels of Questions.
  • A learner profile and a technology survey for students.

We also discussed field trips and their logistics, syllabus design, Socratic seminars, edcafes, parent meetings, parent resources, edcamps, and fact vs. opinion vs. inferences. It was one hour of pure ‘teacher-helping-teachers’.

In my 16 years of teaching, I have definitely found this to be my strongest form of collaborative professional growth.

How to connect?

So, if anyone is interested in finding out how to use Twitter as a teacher, go to Twitter.com, create an account, click ‘compose new Tweet’ and send a message to @thalesdream (me). If you’d like to find other Social Studies and History teachers relatively quick, type ‘Hello, I’m new to Twitter and looking to connect with other history teachers.’ and then add #sschat, which is the chat channel for Social Studies on Twitter.

Here are some other really useful #sschat links:

 

Teacher Blog Recommends

Blogs are really interesting windows into how others create, share and reflect on their lives. I highly recommend using Google Reader, or some other RSS feed to follow the posts of some great educators: Vicki Davis (Cool Cat Teacher), Stephen Lazar (Outside the Cave), Terie Engelbrecht (Crazy Teaching) and Michael K. Milton (@42thinkdeep). Their posts give me the chance to learn more about pedagogy, sharpen my lesson design and implementation, share resources and overall, help me grow as a professional. Check them out!

Reflecting on APUSH Strategies

[notice]A colleague of mine recently asked me about teaching strategies for APUSH, specifically in regard to having students learn from their textbook and lectures. As I was responding, I thought it would be a good idea to share and reflect a bit more in depth on what worked and what didn’t. Here are some of the ups and downs I had last year.[/notice]

I began the year using a couple of different strategies. First, I made a pacing guide with each day mapped out for what students had to read. This meant that the topics we covered in class that day would come from the reading the night before. Quizzes could follow on that pace too. Kids actually loved the quizzes. It compartmentalized their studying. That has strengths and weaknesses, but overall it kept people on their toes.

I also used Schoology discussion boards in the beginning of the year to have students identify three strengths concerning the content and three weaknesses. I asked them to share them on the discussion board each week/chapter.

It was a graded assignment. Here’s how I framed it to students:

Knowing what we don’t know if the first step to understanding. Very simply, write three statements of topics in your reading so far that you understand well and then list three topics (events, issues or individuals) that you would like to know more about. We’re going to help each other study. Respond to students that you have a common strength with from the text, and help another student with an area that they do not fully understand.

Evaluation: You will receive 20 points for sharing a strength and 80 points for helping another student with a weakness. Thanks!

So, for instance, one student wrote: ‘Strengths- Early War, Anaconda Plan, War in the West
Weaknesses- Changes wrought by war, Homefront’ and another student responded:

‘For the Homefront, a big issue was keeping the civilian morale high during the Civil War. Both the Union and the Confederacy desperately needed the loyalty of the people living within their territories in order to win the Civil War. There were religious revivals during this time to help keep civilians enthusiastic about the war and loyal to their side, these revivals also helped people deal with the death of families members who were fighting and gave them hope to a wars end. Also during this time, newspapers and letters were being written and read more often by ordinary citizens who were trying to keep tabs on the war. For some lucky Americans, the war brought riches to them, and in the South those who broke through the Union’s blockade were able to make hefty profits from selling goods. Although some Americans made money during the war, most were deprived of resources that were given to the armies. In the North, the war opened up job opportunities for women and blacks, but the working wages were low and the inflation of money was high. In the South, there were a lot of supply shortages and many hardships for civilians to endure. Families had lost their slaves and homes, and food was becoming scarce.’

This worked fairly well for the students in the beginning of the year. They were helping each other understand the content, and because 80 points was the big ‘grade’, they needed to do so. 20 points for touting what you know well is only the icing on the cake. I called this whole thing ‘collaborative study’, and because it was online, it managed itself. I just had to moderate it and add follow ups and comments to facilitate a deeper discussion and answer some weaknesses that didn’t get responses.

Textbook discussion: Please post comments and questions here concerning the textbook, or any one particular part in it. This week’s topic is progressivism and there’s a lot that’s new here. Let’s break down and build up our understanding. :)

Monday Essential Questions: Scan the chapter. Everyone is responsible for creating one essential question. The EQ should focus on broad topics that provoke deeper thinking. For examples, look here: http://webs.rps205.com/departments/TAH/EQs.html. You don’t need to answer them. This isn’t an essay assignment. I’ll facilitate a discussion based on your questions. If I ask a follow up, please respond and jump in.

Tuesday ID/Vocabulary: First come, first served. Everyone will add 2 ID terms, with a definition that explains the content and context of the term. They do not have to be proper nouns, but they should be central to the chapter’s topics and themes. If you really need help, go to the flashcards section of MyHistoryLab.

Wednesday Primary Sources: Each student will add 1 image and 1 quoted document from the time period and content covered in the chapter. For each image, you must describe it fully and draw 2 inferences, fully explained. For each document, you must provide the link, quote a selection, and then draw 2 inferences from it, fully explained. First come, first served. No duplications. Use MyHistoryLab if you need help.

Thursday Q & A: Each student will ask 5 questions concerning the content in the chapter. Questions can be ones that you would like to know or about something you don’t understand. Each student will answer at least 1 question. I will answer some as well. Each question must be a separate post.

Friday Smackdown (Debate): OK. Here’s where we debate different topics, depending on the content of the chapter. Each student will take one position. They will have to defend it, using reason and evidence. They also have to respond to three others. Choose from strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose. The goal is to win the most supporters, and create consensus for your position. Try to win over others. This is first come, first served as well. Debate it over the weekend.

Towards the end of the semester, I asked students to do more weekly assignments (essays, projects, debates, etc.) and this broke them out of the mold of the daily assignments. To be honest, some of those after 10 weeks or so were becoming stale. The EQ were not as sharp, and the Q/A were formalities rather than authentic questions. I needed to shake it up.

I began to structure debates/discussions in the class around specific topics for greater depth. Here’s an example of the four corners approach on the 1960’s. It’s a pretty straight forward assignment, and its easy to do in class too (and often more authentic):

In this graded discussion assignment, you will take the positions of strongly support, strongly oppose, somewhat support and somewhat oppose. Each position that you take must have a primary source that supports your point, and/or provides context for the point you are making.

The Civil Rights Movement increased equality in America.

The Cuban Missile Crisis was exaggerated.

The Vietnam War was not winnable.

The Great Society was a success.

Choose two of the four above and take a stand. Please include your primary source documents as viewable attachments to your posts. Remember to respond to another student’s post to build a discussion on these issues, events and people. Greater participation in the discussion increases your grade.

This is a lot more work, and requires more preparation and content knowledge up front, but it produced some interesting results. Obviously, the statements have to be structured so that they are more open ended, able to be answered with different perspectives. Lots of kids strongly disagreed with the Cuban Missile Crisis statement. That one was too much of a softball from me.

I got a little more controversial (or engaging, depending on how you look at it) with the WW2 Support/Oppose statements:

  • The good of the many outweigh the needs of the few.
  • The Axis Powers had to be stopped, no matter what.
  • Killing civilians is a war crime.
  • All citizens must sacrifice when their country goes to war.
  • Hitler’s racism was worse than America’s racism.
  • Women won the war.
  • Stalin killed more people than Hitler. Allying with him was wrong.
  • Appeasement only makes the aggressor more aggressive.
  • If the US has the power to stop a genocide, it must.
  • America could have remained neutral.
  • When the war was over, women should give up their jobs to men.
  • The US must continue to use atom bombs until the Japanese surrender.
  • A draft is undemocratic.
  • Dissent is treason during a war.
  • The Jews could have fought back.
  • Winning the war means destroying the enemy completely.
  • Every NAZI soldier is guilty of war crimes.
  • Creating peace is harder than fighting a war.
  • Another World War is impossible today.

Howard Zinn’s Teaching Guide to Voices from a People’s History of the US (available on the Zinn History Project website for free) was also a great repository of ‘debatable’ conclusions on recent history. I used some of them the closer I got to the present. This set is from the 1970’s:

Please take a position on four of the following statements and provide primary source evidence to support your position. Remember to choose from strongly support, somewhat support, strongly oppose or somewhat oppose.

  1. Throughout history, those in power used a long-standing practice of “divide and conquer” to keep marginalized groups of ordinary people from demanding their rights.
  2. The voices of resistance from the 1960s are the direct consequence of historical social, political, economic, and ideological oppression.
  3. A counterculture comprised of persons and groups who are ignored and marginalized by society profoundly influenced United States politics in the 1960s and 1970s.
  4. Many of the counterculture social movements saw issues of oppression as being interlinked.
  5. An ideology of social control and punishment has dominated United States incarceration practices, rather than a philosophy of rehabilitation.
  6. The political, economic, and social ferment of the 1960s created a positive environment for the growth of the counterculture movement.
  7. Women of the 1960s united in many ways to give voice to their desire for liberation: demanding equality; legally challenging the right to make decisions about their own bodies; joining consciousness-raising women’s groups; and frankly discussing sex and sexual roles.
  8. Within the myriad liberation efforts of the 1960s, many people expressed a desire to unite against the “common oppression . . . of control and indoctrination.”
  9. Because the United States prison system was “an extreme reflection of the American system itself,” it was in need of the same dramatic reforms that the counterculture demanded for United States society as a whole.
  10. During the 1960s and 1970s, there was a “loss of faith in big powers” and a corresponding “stronger belief in self.”

Evaluation: Students receive 80 points for their positions and 20 points for a detailed response to another student’s post. Thanks.

Finally, as we were in April and the exam was approaching, I showed some of the PBS Presidents series on the American Experience. Nixon, Carter, Reagan, Clinton… and we ‘crowd-sourced’ the videos. Students got out their mobile devices and texted into a specific discussion board. They were texting while watching and reporting out on anything that they thought was important. Quotes especially. We then analyzed them more at night for homework. I asked questions also during the documentary and students were able to respond.

Those are some of the strategies I used last year with APUSH. Thanks for asking. It got me to reflect a bit on what worked and what didn’t. Again, I relied on Schoology for the online platform for all of this, and it worked great. Kids groaned about the work at times (they formed a private FB group to organize the groaning!) but overall they valued it. I think the approach in general was much more interactive than reporting out the content. I’m thinking of repeating some of these strategies this year, with modifications. Again, this is just one way I explored learning. Its not the only (or even the best way). I’m also extremely open to other ideas. :)